Pedoman Tatalaksana Dislipidemia PERKI 2013

Abstract

Pedoman tatalaksana ini merupakan pedoman
tatalaksana dislipidemia pertama yang dibuat oleh
PERKI. Tujuan pembuatan pedoman tatalaksana ini
adalah untuk membantu dokter membuat keputusan
dalam praktek sehari-hari. Pedoman inimenyarikan
dan mengevaluasi bukti-bukti yang ada ketika
pedoman tatalaksana ini dibuat. Isi dari pedoman
tatalaksana ini mengacu terutama pada pedoman
tatalaksana dislipidemia ESC/EAS tahun 2011 serta
berbagai hasil penelitian lainnya. Keputusan akhir
tentang terapi individual merupakan tanggung jawab
dari dokter yang menangani pasien.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. WHO. World Health Stastistics. 2007.
2. Hokanson J E, Austin MA. Plasma triglyceride level is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a metaanalysis of population-based prospective studies. J Cardiovasc Risk 1996;3:213-9.
3. Gordon T, Castelli WP, Hjortland MC, Kannel WB, Dawber
TR. High Density Lipoprotein As a Protective Factor Against
Coronary Heart Disease. The Framingham Study. Am J Med
1977;62:707-14.
4. Karthikeyan G, Teo KK, Islam S, McQueen MJ, Pais P, Wang
X, Sato H, Lang CC, Sitthi-Amorn C, Pandey MR, Kazmi K,
Sanderson JE, Yusuf S. Lipid Profile, Plasma polipoproteins,
and Risk of a First Myocardial Infarction Among Asians: An
Analysis From the INTERHEART Study. J Am Coll Cardiol
2009;53:244-53.
5. Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Cholesterol, Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke in the Asia Pacific Region. Int J Epidemiol 2003;32:563-72.
6. Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas F,
McQueen M, Budaj A, Pais P, Varigos J, Lisheng L; INTERHEART
Study Investigators. Effect of potentially modifiable
risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART Study): case-control study. Lancet
2004;364:937-52.
7. Tim Biomedis Riset Kesehatan Dasar, Badan Penelitian dan
Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementrian Kesehatan Republik
Indonesia. Laporan Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) Bidang
Biomedis. 2010:20-5.
8. Steg P G, Bhatt DL, Wilson PW, D’Agostino R Sr, Ohman
EM, Röther J, Liau CS, Hirsch AT, Mas JL, Ikeda Y, Pencina
MJ, Goto S; REACH Registry Investigators. One-Year Cardiovascular Event Rates in Outpatients With Atherothrombosis.JAMA 2007;297.
9. Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ (CTT) Collaboration. Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a metaanalysis of data from 170000 participants in 26 randomised trials. Lancet 2010;376:1670-81.
10. Barter P, Gotto AM, LaRosa JC, Maroni J, Szarek M, Grundy SM, Kastelein JJ, Bittner V, Fruchart JC. Treating to New Targets Investigators. HDL cholesterol, very low levels of LDL cholesterol,and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med 2007;357:1301-10.
11. Rubins H B, Robins SJ, Collins D, Fye CL, Anderson JW,
Elam MB, Faas FH, Linares E, Schaefer EJ, Schectman G,
Wilt TJ, Wiites J. Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein
Cholesterol Intervention Trial Study Group. Gemfibrozil for
the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in men with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. N Engl J Med 1999;341:410-8.
12. Barter P J, Caulfield M, Eriksson M, Grundy SM, Kastelein JP, Komajda M, Lopez-Sendon J, Mosca L, Tardif JC, Waters DD,
Shear CL, Revkin JH, Buhr KA, Fisher MR, Tall AR, Brewer B.
ILLUMINATE investigators. Effects of torcetrapib in patients
at high risk for coronary events. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2109- 22.
13. The AIM-HIGH Investigators. Niacin in Patients with Low
HDL Cholesterol Levels Receiving Intensive Statin Therapy.
N Engl J Med 2011;365:2255-67.
14. HPS2-THRIVE Collaborative Group. HPS2-THRIVE randomized
placebo-controlled trial in 25 673 high-risk patients
of ER niacin/laropiprant: trial design, pre-specified muscle and liver outcomes, and reasons for stopping study treatment. Eur Heart J 2013;34:1279-91.
15. Triglyceride Coronary Disease Genetics Consortium and
Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, Sarwar N, Sandhu MS,
Ricketts SL, Butterworth AS, Di Angelantonio E, Boekholdt
SM, Ouwehand W, Watkins H, Samani NJ, Saleheen D, Lawlor
D, Reilly MP, Hingorani AD, Talmud PJ, Danesh J. Triglyceridemediated pathways and coronary disease: collaborative analysis of 101 studies. Lancet 2010;375:1634-9.
16. Bansal S, Buring JE, Rifai N, Mora S, Sacks FM, Ridker PM. Fasting compared with nonfasting triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular events in women. JAMA 2007;298:309-16.
17. Nordestgaard B G, Benn M, Schnohr P, Tybjaerg-Hansen A.
Nonfasting triglycerides and risk of myocardial infarction,
ischemic heart disease, and death in men and women. JAMA
2007;298:299-308.
18. Pischon T, Giran CJ, Sacks FM, Rifai N, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB. Non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in the prediction of coronary heart disease in men.Circulation 2005;112:3375-83.
Jurnal Kardiologi Indonesia 264 Jurnal Kardiologi Indonesia • Vol. 34, No. 4 • Oktober - Desember 2013
19. Ridker P M, Rifai N, Cook NR, Bradwin G, Buring JE. Non-
HDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins A-I and B100, standard lipid measures, lipid ratios, and CRP as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. JAMA 2005;294:326-33.
20. Sniderman A D, Furberg CD, Keech A, Roeters van Lennep
JE, Frohlich J, Jungner I, Walldius G. Apolipoprotein versus
lipids as indices of coronary risk and as targets for statin therapy treatment. Lancet 2003;361:777-80.
21. Robinson J G, Wang S, Smith BJ, Jacobson TA. Meta-analysis of the relationship between non-high-density lipoprotein reduction and coronary heart disease risk. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;53:316-22.
22. The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. Major lipids apolipoproteins,and risk of vascular disease. JAMA 2009;302:1993-2000.
23. Grundy S M, Becker D, Clark LT, Cooper RS, Denke MA,
Howard WmJ, Hunninghake DB, Illingworth DR, Luepker
RV, McBride P, McKenney JM, Pasternak RC, Stone NJ, Horn
LV. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert
Panel on Detection Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood
Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)
Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High
Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III): Final Report. Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health, Heart, Lung,nd Blood Institute 2002;NIH Publication
No.02:5215.
24. Taskinen M R, Barter PJ, Ehnholm C, Sullivan DR, Mann
K, Simes J, Best JD, Hamwood S, Keech AC on behalf of the
FIELD Study Investigators. Ability of traditional lipid ratios and apolipoprotein ratios to predict cardiovascular risk in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2010;53:1846-55.
25. Erqou S, Kaptoge S, Perry PL, Di AE, Thompson A, White
IR, Marcovina SM, Collins R, Thompson SG, Danesh J.
Lipoprotein(a) concentration and the risk of coronary heart
disease, stroke, and nonvascular mortality. JAMA 2009;302:412-23.
26. Barlera S, Franzosi MG, Rust S, Bennett D, Silveira A, Malarstig A, Green FR, Lathrop M, Gigante B, Leander K, de FU, Seedorf U, Hamsten A, Collins R, Watkins H, Farrall M. Genetic variants associated with Lp(a) lipoprotein level and coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2009;361:2518-28.
27. Greene D J, Skeggs JW, Morton RE. Elevated triglyceride
content diminishes the capacity of high density lipoprotein to deliver cholesteryl esters via the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). J Biol Chem 2001;276:4804-11.
28. Skeggs J W, Morton RE. LDL and HDL enriched in triglyceride promote abnormal cholesterol transport. J Lipid Res 2002;43:1264-74.
29. Chait A, Brazg RL, Tribble DL, Krauss RM. rusceptibility of
small, dense, low-density lipoproteins to oxidative modification in subjects with the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype, pattern B. Am J Med 1993;94:350-6.
30. Kwiterovich P OJ. Clinical relevance of the biochemical, metabolic, and genetic factors that influence low-density lipoprotein heterogeneity. Am J Cardiol 2002;90.
31. Ip S, Lichtenstein AH, Chung M, Lau J, Balk EM. Systematic review: association of low-density lipoprotein subfractions with cardiovascular outcomes. Ann Intern Med 2009;150:474-84.
32. Friedewald W T, Levy RI, Frederickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma,without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972;18:499-502.
33. Conroy R, Pyorala K, Fitzgerald AP, Sans S, Menotti A, De Backer G, De Bacquer D, Ducimetie`re P, Jousilahti P, Keil U,Njølstad I, Oganov RG, Thomsen T, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Tverdal A, Wedel H, Whincup P, Wilhelmsen L, Graham I. Estimation of ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project. Eur Heart J 2003;24:987-1003.
34. D’Agostino R BS, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ, Wolf PA, Cobain M, Massaro JM, Kannel WB. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2008;117:743-53.
35. Reiner Z, Catapano AL, De Backer G, Graham I, Taskinen MR, Wiklund O, Agewall S, Alegria E, Chapman MJ, Durrington P,Erdine S, Halcox J, Hobbs R, JKjekshus J, Filardi PP, Riccardi G, Storey RF, Wood D for The Task Force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS). ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias. Eur Heart J 2011;32:1769-818.
36. Grundy S M, Cleeman JI, Merz CN, Brewer HB Jr, Clark
LT, Hunninghake DB, Pasternak RC, Smith SC Jr, Stone NJ;
for the Coordinating Committee of the National Cholesterol
Education Program. Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Circulation 2004;110:227-39, 763 (correction).
37. Law M R, Wald NJ, Thompson SG. By how much and how
quickly does reduction in serum cholesterol concentration lower risk of ischaemic heart disease? BMJ 1994;308:367-72.
38. Law M R. Lowering heart disease risk with cholesterol reduction: evidence from observational studies and clinical trials. Eur Heart J Suppl 1999;Suppl S:S3-S8.
39. Lipid Research Clinics Program Epidemiology Committee.
Plasma lipid distributions in selected North American populations:the Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study.Circulation 1979;60:427-39.
40. Nordestgaard B G, Chapman J, Ray K, Bore´n J, Andreotti F,Watts GF, Ginsberg H, Amarenco P, Catapano A, Descamps
Erwinanto dkk: Pedoman tatalaksana dislipidemia
Jurnal Kardiologi Indonesia • Vol. 34, No. 4 • Oktober - Desember 2013 265 OS, Fisher E, Kovanen PT, Kuivenhoven JA, Lesnik P, Masana L, Reiner Z, Taskinen MR, Tokgo¨zoglu L, Tybjærg-Hansen A, for the European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel. Lipoprotein(a) as a cardiovascular risk factor: current status. Eur Heart J 2010;31:2844-53.
41. Mora S, Szklo M, Otvos JD, Greenland P, Psaty BM, Goff DC Jr, O’Leary DH, Saad MF, Tsai MY, Sharrett AR. LDL particle subclasses, LDL particle size, and carotid atherosclerosis in the Multi-Ethnic Study of therosclerosis (MESA). Atherosclerosis 2007;192:211-7.
42. Jones P H, Davidson MH, Stein EA, Bays HE, McKenney
JM, Miller E, Cain VA, Blasetto JW. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin across doses (STELLAR Trial). Am J Cardiol 2003;92:152-60.
43. The BIP Study Group. Secondary prevention by raising HDL
cholesterol and reducing triglycerides in patients with coronary artery disease. The Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP)Study. Circulation 2000;102:21-7.
44. Keech A, Simes RJ, Barter P, Best J, Scott R, Taskinen MR, Forder P, Pillai A, Davis T, Glasziou P, Drury P, Kesa¨niemi YA, Sullivan D, Hunt D, Colman P, d’Emden M, Whiting M,Ehnholm C, Laakso M. The FIELD Study Investigators. Effects of long-term fenofibrate therapy on cardiovascular events in 9795 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the FIELD study): randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366:1849-61.
45. Jun M, Foote C, Lu J, Patel A, Nicholls SJ, Grobbee DE, Cass A, Chalmers J, Perkovic V. Effects of fibrates on cardiovascular
outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet
2010;375:1875-84.
46. Jones P H, Davidson MH. Reporting rate of rhabdomyolysis
with fenofibrate+statin versus gemfibrozil+any statin. Am J
Cardiol 2005;95:120-2.
47. Ford E S, Ajani UA, Croft JB, Critchley JA, Labarthe DR,
Kottke TE, Giles WH, Capewell S. Explaining the decrease in
U.S. deaths from coronary disease, 1980-2000. N Engl J Med
2007;356:2388-98.
48. Mensink R P, Zock PL, Kester ADM, Katan MB. Effects of
dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum
total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins:
a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. Am j Clin Nutr
2003;77:1146-55.
49. Harris W S. Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Risk for Cardiovascular
Disease : A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association
Nutrition Subcommittee of the Council on Nutrition,
Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Circulation 2009;119:902-
7.
50. Denmacker P N, Reijnen IG, Katan MB, Stuyt PM, Stalenhoef
AF. Increased removal of remnants of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins
on a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Eur J Clin
Invest 1991;21:197-203.
51. Zheng C, Khoo C, Furtado J, Ikewaki K, Sacks FM. Dietary
monounsaturated fat activates metabolic pathways for triglyceride-
rich lipoproteins that involve apolipoproteins E and C-III.
Am j Clin Nutr 2008;99:272-81.
52. Lichtenstein A H, Ausman LM, Jalbert SM, Schaefer EJ. Effects
of different forms of dietary hydrogenated fats on serum lipoprotein
cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1933-40.
53. Katan M B, Zock PL, Mensink RP. Trans fatty acids and their
effects on lipoproteins in humans. Ann Rev Nutr 1995;15:473-
93.
54. Ascherio A, Katan MB, Zock PL, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC.
Trans fatty acids and coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med
1999;340:1994-8.55. NCEP Expert Panel on detection evaluation and treatment of
high blood cholesterol in adults. Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001;285:2486-97.
56. Brown L, Rosner B, Willet W, Sacks SM. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:30-42.
57. Kodama S, Tanaka S, Saito K, Shu M, Sone Y, Onitake F, Suzuki E, Shimano H, Yamamoto S, Kondo K, Ohashi Y, Yamada N,Sone H. Effect of aerobic exercise training on serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:999-1008.
58. Magkos F, Tsekouras YE, Prentzas KI, Basioukas KN, Matsama SG, Yanni AE, Kavouras SA, Sidossis LS. Acute exercise-induced changes in basal VLDL-triglyceride kinetics leading to hypotriglyceridemia
manifest more readily after resistance than
endurance exercise. J Appl Physiol 2008;105:1228-36.
59. Tambalis K, Panagiotakos DB, Kavouras SA, Sidossis LS.
Responses of blood lipids to aerobic, resistance, and combined aerobic with resistance exercise training: a systematic review of current evidence. Angiology 2009;60:614-32.60. Kelley G A, Kelley KS. Impact of progressive resistance training on lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized
controlled trials. Prev Med 2009;48:9-19.
61. Couillard C, Despre´s JP, Lamarche B, Bergeron J, Gagnon J,Leon AS, Rao DC, Skinner JS, Wilmore JH, Bouchard C. Effects of endurance exercise training on plasma HDL cholesterol levels depend on levels of triglycerides: evidence from men of the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21:1226-32.
62. Kraus W E, Houmard JA, Duscha BD, Knetzger KJ, Wharton
MB,, McCartney JS BC, Henes S, Samsa GP, Otvos JD,
Kulkarni KR, Slentz C. Effects of the amount and intensity of Jurnal Kardiologi Indonesia
266 Jurnal Kardiologi Indonesia • Vol. 34, No. 4 • Oktober - Desember 2013 exercise on plasma lipoproteins. N Engl J Med 2002;347:1483-92.
63. Duncan G E, Anton SD, Sydeman SJ, Newton RL Jr, Corsica
JA, Durning PE, Ketterson TU, Martin AD, Limacher MC,
Perri MG. Prescribing exercise at varied levels of intensity and frequency: a randomized trial. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:2362- 9.
64. Durstine J L, Summer AC. Physical Activity, Exercise, Blood Lipids, and Lipoproteins. In Moffatt JR, Stamford B, Eds. Lipid Metabolism and Health. Boca Raton: CRC Press 2006.65. Pischon T, Boeing H, Hoffmann K, Bergmann M, Schulze MB, Overvad K, Van der Schouw YT, Spencer E, Moons
KGM, Tjønneland A, Halkjaer J, Jensen MK, Stegger J, Clavel-
Chapelon F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Chajes V, Linseisen J, Kaaks
R, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos D, Barnia C, Sieri S, Palli D,Tumino R, Vineis P, Panico S, Peeters PHM, May AM, Buenode- Mesquita HB, van Duijnhoven FJB, Hallmans G, Weinehall L, Manjer J, Hedblad B, Lund E, Agudo A, Arriola L, Barricarte
A, Navarro C, Martinez C, Quirós JR, Key T, Bingham S,
Khaw KT, Boffetta P, Jenab M, Ferrari P, Riboli E. General and Abdominal Adiposity and Risk of Death in Europe. N Engl J Med 2008;359:2105-20. 66. Inoue S. The Asia-Pacific Perspective: Redefining Obesity and
Its Treatment. WHO International Obesity Task Force 2000.
67. Prospective study collaboration. Body-mass index and causespecific mortality in 900000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. Lancet 2009;373.
68. Dattilo A M, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of weight reduction on blood lipids and lipoproteins: a meta-analysis. Am j Clin Nutr 1992;56:320-8.
69. The Look AHEAD Research Group. Cardiovascular Effects of
Intensive Lifestyle Intervention in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2013. 70. Maeda K, Noguchi Y, Fukui T. The effects of cessation from
cigarette smoking on the lipid and lipoprotein profiles: a metaanalysis.
Prev Med 2003;37:283-90.
71. Stone N J. Secondary causes of hyperlipidemia. Med Clin North
Am 1994;78:117-41.
72. Chait A, Brunzell JD. Acquired hyperlipidemia (secondary
dyslipoproteinemias). Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am
1990;19:259-78.
73. Hendriks H F, Weststrate JA, van Vliet T, Meijer GW. Spreads
enriched with three different levels of vegetable oil sterols and
the degree of cholesterol lowering in normocholesterolaemic
and mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr
1999;53:319-27.
74. Katan M B, Grundy SM, Jones P, Law M, Miettinen T, Paoletti
R. Efficacy and safety of plant stanols and sterols in the management
of blood cholesterol levels. Mayo Clin Proc 2003;78:965-
78.
75. Abumweis S S, Barake R, Jones PJ. Plant sterols/stanols as
cholesterol lowering agents: a meta-analysis of randomized
controlled trials. Food Nutr Res 2008;52.
76. Dewell A, Hollenbeck PL, Hollenbeck CB. A critical evaluation
of the role of soy protein and isoflavone supplementation in the
control of plasma cholesterol concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol
Metab 2006;91:772-80.
77. Jenkins D J, Kendall CW, Vidgen E, Mehling CC, Parker T,
Seyler H, Faulkner D, Garsetti M, Griffin LC, Agarwal S, Rao
AV, Cunnane SC, Ryan MA, Connelly PW, Leiter LA, Vuksan
V, Josse R. The effect on serum lipids and oxidized low-density
lipoprotein of supplementing self-selected low-fat diets with
soluble fiber, soy, and vegetable protein foods. Metabolism
2000;49:67-72.
78. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Food and
Drug Administration. Food labeling: health claims; soluble
fiber from certain foods and coronary heart disease: final rule.
Federal Register 1998;63:8103-21.
79. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Food and
Drug Administration. Food labeling: health claims; soluble fiber
from certain foods and coronary heart disease: proposed rule.
Federal Register 1997;62:28234-45.
80. Rideout T C, Harding SV, Jones PJ, Fan MZ. Guar gum and
similar soluble fibers in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism:
current understandings and future research priorities. Vasc
Health Risk Manag 2008;4:1023-33.
81. Harris W S. n-3 Fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human
studies. Am j Clin Nutr 1997;65 (suppl.):1645S-54S.
82. Prasad K. Flaxseed and cardivascular health. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol
2009;54:369-77.
83. Kromhout D, Giltay EJ, Geleijnse JM for the Alpha Omega
Trial Group. n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular events after
myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2010;363:2015-26.
84. Hooper L, Thompson RL, Harrison RA, Summerbell CD, Ness
AR, Moore HJ, Worthington HV, Durrington PN, Higgins JPT,
Capps NE, Riemersma RA, Ebrahim SBJ, Davey Smith G. Risks
and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease,
and cancer: systematic review. BMJ 2006;332:752-60.
85. Yokoyama M OH, Matsuzaki M, Matsuzawa Y, Saito Y, Oikawa
S, Sasaki J, Hishida H, Itakura H, Kita T, Kitabatake A, Nakaya
N, Sakata T, Shimada K, Shirato K. Effects of eicosapentaenoic
acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients
(JELIS): a randomised openlabel, blinded endpoint analysis.
Lancet 2007;369:1090-8.
86. Endo A. The discovery and development of HMG-CoA reductase
inhibitors. J Lipid Res 1992;33:1569-82.
87. Bilheimer D W, Grundy SM, Brown MS, Goldstein JL. Mevinolin
and colestipol stimulate receptor-mediated clearance of low
density lipoprotein from plasma in familial hypercholesterolemia
heterozygotes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1983;80:4124-8.
Erwinanto dkk: Pedoman tatalaksana dislipidemia
Jurnal Kardiologi Indonesia • Vol. 34, No. 4 • Oktober - Desember 2013 267
88. Barter P J, Brandrup-Wognsen G , Palmer MK, Nicholls SJ.
Effect of statins on HDL-C: a complex process unrelated to
changes in LDL-C: analysis of the VOYAGER Database. J Lipid
Res 2010;51:1546-53.
89. Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease
(LIPID) Study Group. Prevention of cardiovascular events and
death with pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease
and a broad range of initial cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med
1998;339:1349-57.
90. Downs J R, Clearfield M, Weis S, Whitney E, Shapiro DR,
Beere PA, Langendorfer A, Stein EA, Kruyer W, Gotto AM Jr,
for the AFCAPS/TexCAPS Research Group. Primary prevention
of acute coronary events with lovastatin in men and women with
average cholesterol levels: results of AFCAPS/TexCAPS. JAMA
1998;279:1615-22.
91. Shepherd J, Cobbe SM, Ford I, Isles CG, Lorimer AR, Macfarlane
PW, McKillop JH, Packard CJ, for the West of Scotland
Coronary Prevention Study Group. Prevention of coronary heart
disease with pravastatin in men with hypercholesterolemia. N
Engl J Med 1995;333:1301-7.
92. Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. Randomised
trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary
heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S).
Lancet 1994;344:1383-9.
93. Sacks F M, Pfeffer MA, Moye LA, Rouleau JL, Rutherford JD,
Cole TG, Brown L, Warnica JW,Arnold JMO, Wun C-C, Davis
BR, Braunwald E, for the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events Trial
Investigators. The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after
myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels.
N Engl J Med 1996;335:1001-9.
94. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Food and
Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: New
restrictions, contraindications, and dose limitations for Zocor
(simvastatin) to reduce the risk of muscle injury. 2011.
95. Nelson R G, Tuttle KR, Bilous RW, Gonzalez-CampoyJM,
Mauer M, Molitch ME, Sharma K, Judith Fradkin E, Narva AS.
KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline For Diabetes and CKD:
2012 Update. Am J Kidney Dis 2012;60:850-86.
96. Tyroler H A. Cholesterol and cardiovascular disease. An overview
of Lipid Research Clinics (LRC) epidemiologic studies as
background for the LRC Coronary Primary Prevention Trial.
Am J Cardiol 1984;54:14C-9C.
97. Canner P L, Berge KG, Wenger NK, Stamler J, Friedman L,
Prineas RJ, Friedewald W. Fifteen year mortality in Coronary
Drug Project patients: longterm benefit with niacin. J Am Coll
Cardiol 1986;8:1245-55.
98. Pasternak R C, Smith Jr SC, Bairey-Merz CN, Grundy SM, Cleeman
JI, Lenfant C. ACC/AHA/NHLBI Clinical Advisory on
the Use and Safety of Statins. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:567-
72.
99. Hsu I, Spinler SA, Johnson NE. Comparative evaluation of the
safety and efficacy of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor monotherapy
in the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia. Ann
Pharmacother 1995;29:743-59.
100. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Food and
Drug Administration. Statin Drugs - Drug Safety Communication:
Class Labeling Change. 2012.
101. Sattar N, Preiss D, Murray HM, Welsh P, Buckley BM, de Craen
AJ, Seshasai SR,McMurray JJ, Freeman DJ, Jukema JW, Macfarlane
PW, Packard CJ, Stott DJ,Westendorp RG, Shepherd J,
Davis BR, Pressel SL, Marchioli R, Marfisi RM,Maggioni AP,
Tavazzi L, Tognoni G, Kjekshus J, Pedersen TR, Cook TJ,Gotto
AM, Clearfield MB, Downs JR, Nakamura H, Ohashi Y, Mizuno
K,Ray KK, Ford I. Statins and risk of incident diabetes: a
collaborative meta-analysis of randomized statin trials. Lancet
2010:735-42.
102. Ford I, Murray H, Packard CJ, Shepherd J, McFarlane PW,
Cobbe SM, for the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study
Group. Long-Term Follow-up of the West of Scotland Coronary
Prevention Study. N Engl J Med 2007;357:1477-86.
103. Reckless JP D, Henry P, Pomykaj T, Lim ST, Massaad R,
Vandormael K, Johnson-Levonas AO, Lis K, Brudi P, Allen C.
Lipid-altering efficacy of ezetimibe?simvastatin 10?40 mg compared
with doubling the statin dose in patients admitted to the
hospital for a recent coronary event: the INFORCE study. Int
J Clin Pract 2008;62:539-54.
104. Rossebø A B, Pedersen TR, Boman K, Brudi P, Chambers JB,
Egstrup K, Gerdts E, Gohlke-Ba¨rwolf C, Holme I, Kesa¨niemi
YA, Malbecq W, Nienaber CA, Ray S, Skjaerpe T, Wachtell K,
Willenheimer R. SEAS Investigators. Intensive lipid lowering
with simvastatin and ezetimibe in aortic stenosis. N Engl J Med
2008;359:1343-56.
105. SHARP Collaborative Group. Study of Heart and Renal Protection
(SHARP): randomized trial to assess the effects of lowering
low-density lipoprotein cholesterol among 9,438 patients with
chronic kidney disease. Am Heart J 2010;160:785-94.
106. Florentin M, Liberopoulos EN, Elisaf MS. Ezetimibe-associated
adverse effects: what the clinician needs to know. Int J Clin Pract
2008;62:88-96.
107. Peto R, Emberson J, Landray M, Baigent C, Collins R, Clare R,
Califf R. Analyses of Cancer Data from Three Ezetimibe Trials.
N Engl J Med 2008;359:1357-66.
108. Cannon C P, Giugliano RP, Blazing MA, Harrington RA, Peterson
JL, Sisk CMC, Strony J, Musliner TA, McCabe CH, Veltri
E, Braunwald E, Califf RM, for the IMPROVE-IT Investigators.
Rationale and design of IMPROVE-IT (IMProved Reduction
of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial): Comparison
of ezetimbe/simvastatin versus simvastatin monotherapy
on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary
syndromes. Am Heart J 2008;156:826-32.
Jurnal Kardiologi Indonesia
268 Jurnal Kardiologi Indonesia • Vol. 34, No. 4 • Oktober - Desember 2013
109. Knopp R H. Drug treatment of lipid disorders. N Engl J Med
1999;341:498-511.
110. The ACCORD Study Group. Effects of combination lipid therapy
in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 2010;362:1563-
74.
111. Davidson M H, Armani A, McKenney JM, Jacobson TA. Safety
considerations with fibrate therapy. Am J Cardiol 2007;99:3C-
18C.
112. Knopp R H, Ginsberg J, Albers JJ, Hoff C, Ogilvie JT, Warnick
GR, Burrows E, Retzlaff B, Poole M. Contrasting effects of
unmodified and time-release forms of niacin on lipoproteins in
hyperlipidemic subjects: clues to mechanism of action of niacin.
Metabolism 1985;34:642-50.
113. Grundy S M, Mok HYI, Zech L, Berman M. Influence of
nicotinic acid on metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides
in man. J Lipid Res 1981;22:24-36.
114. Knopp R H, Alagona P, Davidson M, Goldberg AC, Kafonek
SD, Kashyap M, Sprecher D, Superko HR, Jenkins S, Marcovina
S. Equivalent efficacy of a time-release form of niacin (Niaspan)
given once-a-night vs. plain niacin in the management of hyperlipidemia.
Metabolism 1998;47:1097-104.
115. Kamanna V S, Kashyap ML. Mechanism of action of niacin.
Am J Cardiol 2008;101:20B-6B.
116. Thrive Study. http://www.thrivestudy.org/press_release.htm.
117. Barter P J, Brewer HB Jr, Chapman MJ, Hennekens CH, Rader
DJ, Tall AR. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein: a novel target for
raising HDL and inhibiting atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb
Vasc Biol 2003;23:160-7.
118. Bloomfield D, Carlson GL, Sapre A, Tribble D, McKenney
JM, Littlejohn III TW, III, Sisk CM, Mitchel Y, Pasternak
RC. Efficacy and safety of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein
inhibitor anacetrapib as monotherapy and coadministered with
atorvastatin in dyslipidemic patients. Am Heart J 2009;157:352-
60. e2.
119. Reiner Z. Combined therapy in the treatment of dyslipidemia.
Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2010;24:19-28.
120. Huijgen R, Abbink EJ, Bruckert E, Stalenhoef AF, Imholz BP,
Durrington PN, Trip MD, Eriksson M, Visseren FL, Schaefer
JR, Kastelein JJ; Triple Study Group. Colesevelam added to
combination therapy with a statin and ezetimibe in patients with
familial hypercholesterolemia: a 12-week multicenter, randomized,
double-blind, controlled trial. Clin Ther 2010;32:615-
25.
121. Grundy S M, Vega GL, Yuan Z, Battisti WP, Brady WE,
Palmisano J. Effectiveness and tolerability of simvastatin plus
fenofibrate for combined hyperlipidaemia (the SAFARI trial).
Am J Cardiol 2005;95:462-8.
122. McKenney J M, Jones PH, Bays HE, Knopp RH, Kashyap
ML, Ruoff GE, McGovern ME. Comparative effects on lipid
levels of combination therapy with a statin and extended-release
niacin or ezetimibe versus a statin alone (the COMPELL study).
Atherosclerosis 2007;192:432-7.
123. DeMott K, Nherera L, Shaw EJ, Minhas R, Humphries SE,
Kathoria M, Ritchie G,Nunes V, Davies D, Lee P, McDowell I,
Neil A, Qureshi N, Rowlands P, Seed M, Stracey H, Thorogood
M, Watson M. . Clinical guidelines and evidence review for
familial hypercholesterolaemia: the identification and management
of adults and children with familial hypercholesterolaemia.
National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care and Royal
College of General Practitioners 2008.
124. Veenkamp M S, de Graaf J, Bredie SJ, Hendriks JC, Demacker
PN, Stalenhoef AF. . Diagnosis of familial combined hyperlipidemia
based on lipid phenotype expression in 32 families:
results of a 5-year follow-up study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc
Biol 2002;22:274-82.
125. Gaddi A, Cicero AFG, Odoo FO, Poli AA, Paoletti R. Practical
guidelines for familial combined hyperlipidemia diagnosis: an
up-date. . Vasc Health Risk Manag 2007;3:877-86.
126. Kostis W J, Cheng JQ, Dobrzynski JM, Cabrera J, Kostis JB.
. Meta-Analysis of Statin Effects in Women Versus Men. J Am
Coll Cardiol 2012;59:572-82.
127. Lewis S J, Moye LA, Sacks FM, Johnstone DE, Timmis G,
Mitchell J, Limacher M, Kell S, Glasser SP, Grant J, Davis BR,
Pfeffer MA, Braunwald E. for the CARE investigators Effect
of pravastatin on cardiovascular events in older patients with
myocardial infarction and cholesterol levels in the average range.
Ann Intern Med 1998;129:681-9.
128. Miettinen T A, Pyörälä K, Olsson AG, Musliner TA, Cook
TJ, Faergeman O, Berg K, Pedersen T, Kjekshus J. Cholesterol
lowering therapy in women and elderly patients with myocardial
infarction or angina pectoris: findings from the Scandinavian
Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Circulation 1997;96:4211-8.
129. Shepherd J, Blauw GJ, Murphy MB, Bollen EL, Buckley BM,
Cobbe SM, Ford I, Gaw A, Hyland M, Jukema JW, Kamper
AM, Macfarlane PW, Meinders AE, Norrie J, Packard CJ,
Perry IJ, Stott DJ, Sweeney BJ, Twomey C, Westendorp RG;
PROSPER Study Group. . PROspective Study of Pravastatin
in the Elderly at Risk. Pravastatin in elderly individuals at risk
of vascular disease (PROSPER): a randomised controlled trial.
Lancet 2002;360:1623-30.
130. Alberti K G, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman
JI, Doanto KA, Fruchart J-C, James PT, Loria CM, Smith SC.
Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement
of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on
Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood
Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation;
International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association
for the Study of Obesity. Circulation 2009;120:1640-5.
131. Hillier T A, Rizzo JH, Pedula KL, Cauley JA, Schwartz AV,
Ensrud KE, Browner WS. . Increased Mortality Associated
Erwinanto dkk: Pedoman tatalaksana dislipidemia
Jurnal Kardiologi Indonesia • Vol. 34, No. 4 • Oktober - Desember 2013 269
With the Metabolic Syndrome in Older Women With Diabetes.
Diabetes Care 2005;28:2258-60.
132. Mottillo S, Filion KB, Genest J, Joseph L, Pilote L, Poirier P,
Rinfret S, Schiffrin EL, Eisenberg MJ. . The metabolic syndrome
and cardiovascular risk. A systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;56:1113-32.
133. Adiels M, Olofsson S-O, Taskinen M-R, Bore´n J. . Overproduction
of very low-density lipoproteins is the hallmark of the
dyslipidaemia in the metabolic syndrome. Arterioscler Thromb
Vasc Biol 2008;28:1225-36.
134. Scott R, O’Brien R, Fulcher G, Pardy C, D’Emden M, Tse D,
Taskinen M-R, Ehnholm C, Keech A. . Effects of fenofibrate
treatment on cardiovascular disease risk in 9,795 individuals
with type 2 diabetes and various components of the metabolic
syndrome. Diabetes Care 2009;32:493-8.
135. IIanne-Parikka P, Eriksson JG, Lindstrom J, Peltonen M, Aunola
S, Hamalainen H, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Valle
TT, Lahtela J, Uusitupa M, Tuomilehto J. Effect of lifestyle
intervention on the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and its
components in the Finnish diabetes prevention study. Diabetes
Care 2008;31:805-7.
136. Colhoun H M, Betteridge DJ, Durrington PN, Hitman
GA, Neil HA, Livingstone SJ, Thomason MJ, Mackness MI,
Charlton-Menys V, Fuller JH; CARDS Investigators. . Primary
prevention of cardiovascular disease with atorvastatin in type
2 diabetes in the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study
(CARDS): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial.
Lancet 2004;364:685-96.
137. Adolescent type 1 Diabetes cardio-renal Interventional Trial
Research Group. Adolescent type 1 Diabetes Cardio-renal
Intervention Trial (AdDIT). . BMC Pediatr 2009;9:79.
138. Kasiske B, Cosio FG, Beto J, Chavers B, Grimm Jr R, Levin
A, Masri B, Parekh R, Wanner C, Wheeler D, Wilson W. . K/
DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Managing Dyslipidemias
in Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2003;41:S1-
S91.
139. Fellström B C, Jardine AG, Schmieder RE, Holdaas H, Bannister
K, Beutler J, Chae DW, Chevaile A, Cobbe SM, Gönhagen-
Riska C, De Lima JJ, Lins R, Mayer G, McMahon AW, Parving
HH, Remuzzi G, Samuelsson O, Sonkodi S,Sci D, Süleymanlar
G, Tsakiris D, Tesar V, Todorov V, Wiecek A, Wüthrich RP,
Gottlow M, Johnsson E, Zannad F; AURORA Study Group. .
Rosuvastatin and cardiovascular events in patients undergoing
hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 2009;360:1395-407.
140. Wanner C, Krane V, März W, Olschewski M, Mann JF, Ruf
G, Ritz E; German Diabetes and Dialysis Study Investigators. .
Atorvastatin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing
hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 2005;353:238-48.
141. National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines
for chronic kidney disease: Evaluation, classification, and
stratification. Am J Kidney Dis 2002;39:S1-S266.
142. Benfante R, Yano K, Hwang LJ, Curb JD, Kagan A, Ross W.
. Elevated serum cholesterol is a risk factor for both coronary
heart disease and thromboembolic stroke in Hawaiian Japanese
men. Implications of shared risk. Stroke 1994;25:814-20.
143. Iso H, Jacobs, Jr. DR, Wentworth D, Neaton JD, Cohen JD. .
Serum Cholesterol Levels and Six-Year Mortality from Stroke in
350,977 Men Screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention
Trial. . N Engl J Med 1989;320:904-10.
144. Engström G, Lind P, Hedblad B, Stavenow L, Janzon L,
Lindgärde F. . Effects of Cholesterol and Inflammation-Sensitive
Plasma Proteins on Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and
Stroke in Men. Circulation 2002;105:2632-7.
145. Prospective Studies Collaboration. Cholesterol, diastolic blood
pressure, and stroke: 13 000 strokes in 450 000 people in 45
prospective cohorts. Lancet 1995;346:1647-53.
146. Suh I, Jee SH, Kim HC, Nam CM, Kim IS, Appel LJ. . Low
serum cholesterol and haemorrhagic stroke in men: Korea Medical
Insurance Corporation Study. Lancet 2001;357:922-25.
147. LaRosa J C, Grundy SM, Waters DD, Shear C, Barter P, Fruchart
JC, Gotto AM, Greten H, Kastelein JJ, Shepherd J,Wenger
NK; Treating to New Targets (TNT) Investigators. . Intensive
lipid lowering with atorvastatin in patients with stable coronary
disease. . N Engl J Med 2005;352:1425-35.
148. Amarenco P, Labreuche J. Lipid management in the prevention
of stroke: review and updated meta-analysis of statins for stroke
prevention. . Lancet Neurol 2009;8:453-63.
149. Byington R P, Davis BR, Plehn JF, White HD, Baker J, Cobbe
SM, Shepherd J. Reduction of stroke events with pravastatin:
the Prospective Pravastatin Pooling (PPP) project. . Circulation
2001;103:387-92.
150. The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol
Levels (SPARCL) Investigators. High-dose atorvastatin after
stroke or transient ischemic attack. N Engl J Med 2006;355:549-
59.
151. Ray K K, Cannon CP, McCabe CH, Cairns R, Tonkin AM,
Sacks FM, Jackson G, Braunwald E; PROVE IT-TIMI 22
Investigators. Early and late benefits of high dose atorvastatin
in patients with acute coronary syndromes: results from the
PROVE IT-TIMI 22 trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:1405-
10.
152. Lee K H, Jeong MH, Kim HM, Ahn Y, Kim JH, Chae SC, Kim
YJ, Hur SH, In Whan Seong IW, Hong TJ, Choi DH, Cho
MC, Kim CJ, Seung KB, Chung WS, Jang YS, MD, Rha SW,
Bae JH, Cho JW, Park SJ, KAMIR (Korea Acute Myocardial
Infarction Registry) Investigators. Benefit of early statin therapy
in patients with acute myocardial infarction who have extremely
low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. J Am Coll Cardiol
2011;58:1664-71.
153. GISSI-Prevenzione Investigators. Dietary supplementation
Jurnal Kardiologi Indonesia
270 Jurnal Kardiologi Indonesia • Vol. 34, No. 4 • Oktober - Desember 2013
with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial
infarction: results of the GISSIprevenzione trial. Lancet
1999;354:447-55.
154. Di Sciascio G, Patti G, Pasceri V, Gaspardone A, Colonna G,
Montinaro A. Efficacy of atorvastatin reload in patients on
chronic statin therapy undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention:
results of the ARMYDA-RECAPTURE (Atorvastatin
for Reduction of MYocardial Damage during Angioplasty)
randomized trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;54:558-65.
155. Pasceri V, Patti G, Nusca A, Pristipino C, Richich Gi, Di Sciascio
G, on behalf of the ARMYDA Investigators. Randomized Trial
of Atorvastatin for Reduction of Myocardial Damage During
Coronary Intervention Results From the ARMYDA (Atorvastatin
for Reduction of Myocardial Damage during Angioplasty)
Study. Circulation 2004;110:674-8.
156. Winchester D E, Wen X, Xie L, Bavry AA. Evidence of preprocedural
statin therapy: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.
J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;56:1099-109.
157. Briguori C, Visconti G, Focaccio A, Golia B, Chieffo A, Castelli
A, Mussardo M, Montorfano M, Ricciardelli B, Colombo A.
Novel approaches for preventing or limiting events (NAPLES)
II trial impact of a single high loading dose of atorvastatin
on periprocedural myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol
2009;54:2157-63.
Published
2015-04-01
Views & Downloads
Abstract views: 272   
PDF downloads: 415   
How to Cite
Pedoman Tatalaksana Dislipidemia PERKI 2013. (2015). Indonesian Journal of Cardiology, 34(4), 245-70. https://doi.org/10.30701/ijc.v34i4.385
Section
Review Article