Higher Plasma Glucose Level In Hypertensive Patient With Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene Deletion Of Intron 16
AbstractBackground Renin Angiotensin Aldosteron System plays major role in hypertension pathophysiology. Has been proposed that half of individuals with essential hypertension are considered insulin resistant. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme gene polymorphism taking the control of ACE level in human plasma. There might be a correlation between ACE gene polymorphism and plasma glucose level.
Objective This study sought to investigate ACE gene polymorphism insertion/deletion in hypertensive patients and its correlation with plasma glucose level.
Method A total of 100 hypertensive patients at Saiful Anwar cardiovascular outpatients clinic who received ACEi at least 8 weeks were included. ACE genotype were determined by polymerase chain reaction method, and plasma glucose level was measured by enzymatic colorimetric assay method.
Result The II, ID, and DD genotype were observed in 48%, 29% and 23% of participant, respectively. The fasting and 2 hours post prandial plasma glucose were significantly higher in DD genotype patients. The insertion/deletion polymorphisms were not related significantly to age, sex, cough, and controlled blood pressure of those patients.
Conclusion This study showed that 23% of hypertensive patients had DD genotype with higher plasma glucose level as compare to those of II and ID genotype.
2. Agerholm-Larsen B, Nordestgaard BrG, TybjÃ¦rg-Hansen A. ACE gene polymorphism in cardiovascular disease meta-analyses of small and large studies in whites. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2000; 20(2):484-492.
3. Saab YB, Mrouch MA, Gard P. Renin angiotensin system polyTabel morphisms and associated diseases. Pan Arab Medical Journal. 2004; 1:43-48.
4. Li Y-F, Zhu X-M, Liu F, Xiao C-S, Bian Y-F, Li H, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and ACE inhibitor-related cough: a meta-analysis. PloS one. 2012; 7(6):e37396-e37396.
5. Nagi DK, Foy CA, Mohamed-Ali V, Yudkin JS, Grant PJ, Knowler WC. Angiotensin-1converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism, plasma ACE levels, and their association with the metabolic syndrome and electrocardiographic coronary artery disease in Pima Indians. Metabolism. 1998; 47(5):622-626.
6. Zingone A, Dominijanni A, Mele E, Marasco O, Melina F, Minchella P, et al. Deletion polymorphism in the gene for angiotensin converting enzyme is associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels. Human genetics. 1994; 94(2):207-209.
7. Bonnet F, Patel S, Laville M, Balkau B, Favuzzi A, Monti LD, et al. Influence of the ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism on insulin sensitivity and impaired glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. Diabetes care. 2008; 31(4):789-794.
8. Sowers JR. Insulin resistance and hypertension. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2004; 286(5):H1597-H1602.
9. Benigni A, Cassis P, Remuzzi G. Angiotensin II revisited: new roles in inflammation, immunology and aging. EMBO molecular medicine. 2010; 2(7):247-257.
10. Hsueh WA, Wyne K. Renin Angiotensine Aldosterone System in Diabetes and Hypertension. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2011; 13(4):224-237.
11. Zhou Y-F, Yan H, Hou X-P, Miao J-L, Zhang J, Yin Q-X, et al. Association study of angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism with elderly diabetic hypertension and lipids levels. Lipids Health Dis. 2013; 12(1):187.
12. Aziza L, Sjabani M, Haryana SM, Soesatyo MHNE, Sadewa AH. The Relationship of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism Insertion/Deletion and Hypertension in Yogyakarta Population, Indonesia. Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association. 2011;60(04).
13. Perticone F, Ceravolo R, Cosco C, Trapasso M, Zingone A, Malatesta P, et al. Deletion polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene and left ventricular hypertrophy in southern Italian patients. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1997; 29(2):365-369.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).