Effect of Exercise Duration Toward Heart Rate Recovery in Elderly
Background: Age-related change in autonomic nerves covers parasympathetic function decrease that hampers heart rate (HR) control. The effective attempt to improve autonomic nervous function for elderly is routine exercise, however exercise duration among elderly is not always standardized. This study is aimed to compare the effect of different exercise duration to post-exercise Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) between two elderly groups with the same frequency, intensity, type criteria of routine exercise.
Method: Method was cross-sectional study which compared exercise duration of standardized group (3x90 minutes/week) and unstandardized group (3x30 minutes/week). Group 1 was elders with standardized duration from Healthy Heart Club and Group 2 was elders who take unstandardized duration from Elderly Home in Bandung city. Each group consisted of 43 elders and data were collected in July-August 2019. After one hour of medium intensity exercise, all respondents were examined for resting HR (HRrest), maximum HR (HRmax), one minute post-exercise HR, and four minutes post-exercise HR. HRR was obtained by subtracting HRmax by one minute post-exercise HR and normal if > 12 bpm. Analysis data was done by SPSS with Mann-Whitney U Test, Fisher Chi Square and Logistic regression.
Result: Most of respondents were 60-69 years old and female. Respondents in unstandardized group were more low education, hypertension and smoking. The HRrest of both groups was categorized as normal but increased greater (30x/min) in standardized group. The result showed a significant difference in comparation of median HRR (p=0.001) and number of normal and abnormal HRR (p=0.001) between both groups. Gender, smoking and standardized duration of exercise associated with abnormality of HRR, elders who take unstandardized duration have 12.7 times risk to get abnormal HRR.
Conclusion: Routine exercise for elderly is recommended in standardized duration with minimal 150 minutes per week in order to increase post-exercise HRR.
2. Kemenkes RI. Analisa Lansia di Indonesia. Kementrian Kesehat RI. 2017:1-9. www.depkes.go.id/download.php?file=download/.../infodatin lansia 2016.pdf%0A.
3. Wichi RB, De Angelis K, Jones L, Irigoyen MC. A brief review of chronic exercise intervention to prevent autonomic nervous system changes during the aging process. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64(3):253-258. doi:10.1590/s1807-59322009000300017
4. Shankar V, Veeraiah S. Age Related Changes in the Parasympathetic Control of the He1. Shankar V, Veeraiah S. Age Related Changes in the Parasympathetic Control of the Heart. Int J Sci Res Publ [Internet]. 2012;2(6):2250–3153. Available from: www.ijsrp.orgart. Int J Sci Res Publ. 2012;2(6):2250-3153. www.ijsrp.org.
5. Jaguaribe de Lima AM, Barbosa BT, Sarmento de Oliveira A, et al. Regular physical exercise improves cardiac autonomic and muscle vasodilatory responses to isometric exercise in healthy elderly. Clin Interv Aging. 2017;Volume 12:1021-1028. doi:10.2147/cia.s120876
6. Afriwardi. Program latihan bagi kelompok lansia. J Kesehat Masy. 2009;3(1):35-37.
7. Lahiri MK, Kannankeril PJ, Goldberger JJ. Assessment of Autonomic Function in Cardiovascular Disease. Physiological Basis and Prognostic Implications. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51(18):1725-1733. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2008.01.038
8. van de Vegte YJ, van der Harst P, Verweij N. Heart rate recovery 10 seconds after cessation of exercise predicts death. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018;7(8). doi:10.1161/JAHA.117.008341
9. Qiu S, Cai X, Sun Z, et al. Heart rate recovery and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6(5). doi:10.1161/JAHA.117.005505
10. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. http://www.depkes.go.id/article/view/17073100005/penyakit-jantung-penyebab-kematian-tertinggi-kemenkes-ingatkan-cerdik-.html. Accessed May 21, 2019.
11. Elshazly A, Khorshid H, Hanna H, Ali A. Effect of exercise training on heart rate recovery in patients post anterior myocardial infarction. Egypt Hear J. 2018;70(4):283-285. doi:10.1016/j.ehj.2018.04.007
12. Lira MJL de, Nogueira IDB, Souza JF de, Melo FES de, Azevedo IG, Nogueira PA de MS. Heart rate recovery after physical exertion tests in elderly hypertensive patients undergoing resistance training. Fisioter em Mov. 2016;29(1):53-60. doi:10.1590/0103-5150.029.001.ao05
13. Noah Greenspan, DPT, CCS*; Marion Mackles, BS; Tiana Long, BS; Cynthia Novak SR, Arena P. HEART RATE RECOVERY FOLLOWING EXERCISE TRAINING IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH COPD. Chest J. 2007;132(4):2007. doi:10.1378/chest.132.4
14. Mayo Clinic Staff. Exercise intensity: How to measure it - Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/exercise-intensity/art-20046887. Published 2019. Accessed October 30, 2019.
15. Cole CR, Blackstone EH, Pashkow FJ, Snader CE, Lauer MS. Heart-rate recovery immediately after exercise as a predictor of mortality. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(18):1351-1357. doi:10.1056/NEJM199910283411804
16. Heart rate: What is a normal heart rate? https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/235710.php. Accessed October 30, 2019.
17. Cole CR, Foody JM, Blackstone EH, Lauer MS. Heart rate recovery after submaximal exercise testing as a predictor of mortality in a cardiovascularly healthy cohort. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(7):552-555. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-132-7-200004040-00007
18. University of Colorado Hospital. Training for Cardiovascular Fitness. Univ Sport Med. 2003. http://www.ucdenver.edu/academics/colleges/medicine/sportsmed/cusm_patient_resources/Documents/Training for Cardiovascular Fitness.pdf.
19. World Health Organization. GLOBAL RECOMMENDATION ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR HEALTH. 2010:7-8.
20. Lauer MS, Pashkow FJ, Cole CR, Blackstone EH, Snader CE. Heart Rate Recovery Immediately After Exercise as a Predictor of Mortality. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 2003;20(2):131-132. doi:10.1097/00008483-200003000-00012
21. Sumintarsih. KEBUGARAN JASMANI UNTUK LANJUT USIA Oleh Sllmintarsih Dosen MPK Olahraga UPN “ Veteran” Yogyakarta. Olahraga. 2007:147-160.
PDF downloads: 316
Copyright (c) 2020 Indonesian Journal of Cardiology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).