Cardiovascular Implications of Coronavirus Disease 2019
Review of Current Literatures
The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) that first appeared in Wuhan, China. COVID-19 was found to have significant connection with the cardiovascular system by causing complications such as myocarditis and arrhythmias. Furthermore, medications for COVID-19 have been shown to induce cardiovascular side effects. The emergence of COVID-19 spreading also raised questions on the need for modification of life support algorithms to protect vulnerable healthcare workers.
2. Madjid M, Safavi-Naeini P, Solomon SD, Vardeny O. Potential Effects of Coronaviruses on the Cardiovascular System: A Review. JAMA Cardiol. 2020;10:1-10.
3. Situasi Virus Corona – Covid19.go.id.
4. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020;395:1054-1062.
5. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, Wang B, Xiang H, Cheng Z, Xiong Y, Zhao Y, Li Y, Wang X, Peng Z. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc. 2020;323:1061-1069.
6. Gorbalenya AE, Baker SC, Baric RS, de Groot RJ, Drosten C, Gulyaeva AA, Haagmans BL, Lauber C, Leontovich AM, Neuman BW, Penzar D, Perlman S, Poon LLM, Samborskiy D V., Sidorov IA, Sola I, Ziebuhr J. The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV2. Nat Microbiol. 2020;5:536-544.
7. Zhang H, Penninger JM, Li Y, Zhong N, Slutsky AS. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a SARS-CoV2 receptor: molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic target. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46:586-590.
8. Oudit GY, Kassiri Z, Jiang C, Liu PP, Poutanen SM, Penninger JM, Butany J. SARS-coronavirus modulation of myocardial ACE2 expression and inflammation in patients with SARS. Eur J Clin Invest. 2009;39:618-625.
9. Atri D, Siddiqi HK, Lang J, Nauffal V, Morrow DA, Bohula EA. COVID-19 for the Cardiologist: A Current Review of the Virology, Clinical Epidemiology, Cardiac and Other Clinical Manifestations and Potential Therapeutic Strategies. JACC Basic to Transl Sci. April 2020.
10. Lippi G, Lavie CJ, Sanchis-Gomar F. Cardiac troponin I in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Evidence from a meta-analysis. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2020.
11. Shi S, Qin M, Shen B, Cai Y, Liu T, Yang F, Gong W, Liu X, Liang J, Zhao Q, Huang H, Yang B, Huang C. Association of Cardiac Injury With Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Cardiol. 2020.
12. Zheng YY, Ma YT, Zhang JY, Xie X. COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2020;17:259-260.
13. Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zhang C, Liu S, Zhao P, Liu H, Zhu L, Tai Y, Bai C, Gao T, Song J, Xia P, Dong J, Zhao J, Wang FS. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8:420-422.
14. Chen T, Wu D, Chen H, Yan W, Yang D, Chen G, bmj KM-, 2020 undefined. Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: retrospective study. bmj.com.
15. Inciardi RM, Lupi L, Zaccone G, Italia L, Raffo M, Tomasoni D, Cani DS, Cerini M, Farina D, Gavazzi E, Maroldi R, Adamo M, Ammirati E, Sinagra G, Lombardi CM, Metra M. Cardiac Involvement in a Patient with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Cardiol. 2020.
16. Zeng JH, Liu Y-X, Yuan J, Wang F-X, Wu W-B, Li J-X, Wang L-F, Gao H, Wang Y, Dong C-F, Li Y-J, Xie X-J, Feng C, Liu L. First Case of COVID-19 Infection with Fulminant Myocarditis Complication: Case Report and Insights. Preprints. 2020;2020030180.
17. Kui L, Fang Y, Deng Y, Liu W, … MW-C medical, 2020 undefined. Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus cases in tertiary hospitals in Hubei Province. journals.lww.com.
18. Liu K, Fang Y-Y, Deng Y, Liu W, Wang M-F, Ma J-P, Xiao W, Wang Y-N, Zhong M-H, Li C-H, Li G-C, Liu H-G. Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus cases in tertiary hospitals in Hubei Province. Chin Med J (Engl). February 2020:1.
19. Tisdale JE, Jaynes HA, Kingery JR, Mourad NA, Trujillo TN, Overholser BR, Kovacs RJ. Development and validation of a risk score to predict QT interval prolongation in hospitalized patients. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2013;6:479-487.
20. Wu C-I, Postema PG, Arbelo E, Behr ER, Bezzina CR, Napolitano C, Robyns T, Probst V, Schulze-Bahr E, Remme CA, Wilde AAM. SARS-CoV2, COVID-19 and inherited arrhythmia syndromes. Hear Rhythm. March 2020.
21. Fossa AA, Wisialowski T, Duncan JN, Deng S, Dunne M. Azithromycin/chloroquine combination does not increase cardiac instability despite an increase in monophasic action potential duration in the anesthetized guinea pig. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:929-938.
22. Baksi AJ, Kanaganayagam GS, Prasad SK. Arrhythmias in Viral Myocarditis and Pericarditis. Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2015;7:269-281.
23. Caforio A, Pankuweit S, … EA-E heart, 2013 undefined. Current state of knowledge on aetiology, diagnosis, management, and therapy of myocarditis: a position statement of the European Society of Cardiology Working. academic.oup.com.
24. Peretto G, Sala S, Rizzo S, De Luca G, Campochiaro C, Sartorelli S, Benedetti G, Palmisano A, Esposito A, Tresoldi M, Thiene G, Basso C, Della Bella P. Arrhythmias in myocarditis: State of the art. Hear Rhythm. 2019;16:793-801.
25. Al-Khatib SM, William Stevenson CG, Chair V, Ackerman MJ, Bryant WJ, Callans DJ, et al. 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation. 2018;138:272-391.
26. Priori SG, Blomström-Lundqvist C, Mazzanti A, Blom N, Borggrefe M, Camm J, et al. 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death: The Task Force for the Management of Patients with Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)Endorsed by: Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). Europace. 2015;17:1601-1687.
27. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Coronary artery disease issues - UpToDate.
28. Musher DM, Abers MS, Corrales-Medina VF. Acute infection and myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2019;380:171-176.
29. Kwong JC, Schwartz KL, Campitelli MA, Chung H, Crowcroft NS, Karnauchow T, Katz K, Ko DT, McGeer AJ, McNally D, Richardson DC, Rosella LC, Simor A, Smieja M, Zahariadis G, Gubbay JB. Acute myocardial infarction after laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. N Engl J Med. 2018;378:345-353.
30. Mallidi J. Cardiology in the Time of COVID-19.
31. Controversy in Managing Acute MI in the COVID-19 Era - American College of Cardiology.
32. Clerkin KJ, Fried JA, Raikhelkar J, Sayer G, Griffin JM, Masoumi A, Jain SS, Burkhoff D, Kumaraiah D, Rabbani L, Schwartz A, Uriel N. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation. 2020;2019.
33. Fried JA, Ramasubbu K, Bhatt R, Topkara VK, Clerkin KJ, Horn E, Rabbani L, Brodie D, Jain SS, Kirtane A, Masoumi A, Takeda K, Kumaraiah D, Burkhoff D, Leon M, Schwartz A, Uriel N, Sayer G. The Variety of Cardiovascular Presentations of COVID-19. Circulation. April 2020.
34. Edelson DP, Sasson C, Chan PS, Atkins DL, Aziz K, Becker LB, et al. Interim Guidance for Basic and Advanced Life Support in Adults, Children, and Neonates With Suspected or Confirmed COVID-19: From the Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and Get With the Guidelines ®-Resuscitation Adult and Pediatric Task Forces of th. Circulation. 2020.
35. Giudicessi JR, Noseworthy PA, Friedman PA, Ackerman MJ. Urgent Guidance for Navigating and Circumventing the QTc-Prolonging and Torsadogenic Potential of Possible Pharmacotherapies for Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19. JMCP. 2020.
36. Capel RA, Herring N, Kalla M, Yavari A, Mirams GR, Douglas G, Bub G, Channon K, Paterson DJ, Terrar DA, Burton R-AB. Hydroxychloroquine reduces heart rate by modulating the hyperpolarization-activated current If: Novel electrophysiological insights and therapeutic potential. Hear Rhythm. 2015;12:2186-2194.
37. Roden DM, Harrington RA, Poppas A, Russo AM. Considerations for Drug Interactions on QTc in Exploratory COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) Treatment. Circulation. April 2020.
38. Barbosa J, Kaitis D, Freedman R, Le K, Lin X. Clinical Outcomes of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: A Quasi-Randomized Comparative Study. N Engl J Med. 2020.
39. Tisdale JE. Drug-induced QT interval prolongation and torsades de pointes: Role of the pharmacist in risk assessment, prevention and management. Can Pharm J. 2016;149:139-152.
40. Vaduganathan M, Vardeny O, Michel T, McMurray JJV, Pfeffer MA, Solomon SD. Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System Inhibitors in Patients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. March 2020.
41. Association AH. HFSA/ACC/AHA statement addresses concerns re: using RAAS antagonists in COVID-19.
42. Position Statement of the ESC Council on Hypertension on ACE-Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers.
PDF downloads: 111
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).